Methane sensing studies of ex-situ oxidized sputtered V2O5 nanostructured films: Effect of post oxidation duration

The effect of microstructural modifications of V2O5 thin films, obtained through alterations in post oxidation duration, on methane sensing behavior is reported for the first time. Three different oxidation times viz., 1 h, 3 h and 5 h yielded varied microstructure and vibrational properties as evident from XRD and Raman investigation. These changes in properties manifest as differences in gas sensing behavior. Methane sensing properties of V2O5 was investigated in temperature range from 100 to 300 °C and optimum operating temperature of 200 °C was identified for all three samples. Films oxidized for 1 h showed the highest response due to favorable surface conditions which are discussed. These results will help in tailoring microstructure towards device level application processes. 

Recent progress in Nanostructured Metal Oxides based NO2 gas sensing in India

The metal oxides are considered as an outstanding semiconductor material to sense several toxicants from the environment. In particular, the nanostructure containing rod, wire, and tube-like morphology of metal oxides were widely utilized to fabricate effective gas sensors worldwide. Out of number of toxicant, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is one of the highly reactive gas, results from the burning of fuel from vehicles, power plants, and off-road equipment.The exposures to NO2 may giverise to the development of the respiratory diseases and leads to the death. Therefore, the efficient detection of NO2 gas is the urgent need of recent era. More than 5000 research articles were published on the NO2 gas sensing worldwide. The researchers from India is also contributed a lot to detect the NO2 gas via nanostructured metal oxides powder and thin films. The aim of the present article is to explore the recent advances of NO2 gas sensors based on metal oxide nanomaterials within the country. The review begins with the general introduction of metal oxide, gas sensorand NO2 gas sensor and followed by the broadly discussion of major research groups working in India and their finding in the fieldof nanostructured metal oxide for the fabrication of NO2 gas sensors. Moreover, various factors likegas concentrations, working temperature, morphologies, sensor response, selectivity, etc. of metal oxides were discussed in the present report. The report concludes with the future directions and opportunities in the field of detection of NO2 gas in India and world.

A comprehensive review on functionalized Hydroxyapatite nanostructures based gas sensors for environmental pollutant monitoring

The utilization of advanced sensing techniques for detecting and monitoring toxic gases in industry and the environment is a predominant action. For such applications, the sensor material should possess higher sensitivity, faster detection, and real-time operation. Mostly, metal oxides (MOs) are preferred for gas sensing purposes owing to their excellent sensing property, wide band-gap, electrical conductivity, and high surface reactivity. But, the same MOs lag in many perspectives like low selectivity, higher operating temperature (> 400 °C), more power consumption, and reduced stability. Since more emphasis is given to materials that operate at room temperatures like nano-hydroxyapatite (nHAp), it’s a bio-ceramic material used for chemical gas sensing. The nHAp is a matrix of rich calcium (Ca2+) and phosphate (PO43-) ions. In chemical gas sensors, the nHAp possess significant properties like large surface phosphate-hydroxide (P-OH) groups, ionic conductivity, porous nature, and ion exchange capability for effective gas molecule interaction. In this profound review, we discussed the nHAp structure with different fabrication techniques for gas sensing. Particularly, functionalized nHAp with MO and polymers were focused and their stability, sensitivity, selectivity, and adsorption rate are presented along with different mechanisms. Existing challenges and future perspectives of nHAp material are also highlighted.

Defect mediated optical detection of ammonia using SnO2 nanoparticle

SnO2 with oxygen vacancies, an n-type gas sensing material used commercially as resistive sensors at high temperatures, suffers from the drift in voltage, contact resistances and poor selectivity. These prevailed defects in rutile SnO2 offer excellent optical properties which remain to be explored for the gas sensor. Apart from advantage of contactless operation with no direct voltage application, an optical method with the varied light energies is highly beneficial for excitations of the deep electronic states at ease, with opportunity to improve the sensor response measurement quickly in selective manner. In this direction, we report the synthesis and characterization of SnO2 nanostructures with emphasis on their Raman and photoluminescence properties. In subsequence, the crucial role of various defects in displaying the improved optical responses and selectivity for ammonia are highlighted.  

Genome-wide mutation/SNP analysis, biological characteristics, and Pan-India prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 Variants of Concern

The origin of COVID-19 pandemic, caused by SARS-CoV-2, was traced to Wuhan, China. Thereafter, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) evolved into various variants owing to genome-wide mutations, causing emergence of multiple variants, including Variant of Interest and Variant of Concern. Here, we discuss genomic architecture of SARS-CoV-2, as well as its multiple variants- alpha, beta, gamma, and delta, along with their biological properties, such as transmissibility, reduction in antibody-mediated neutralization, virulence, disease severity, vaccine effectiveness, and the prevalence across the India vis-à-vis world. Our data on VOC, pooled from the Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data up to 31 October 2021, shows around 89% prevalence of delta VOC across various Indian States. Whereas alpha, beta, and gamma variants show 10.44%, 0.57%, and 0.11% prevalence, respectively. Compared with global scale, the reported Indian prevalence of alpha, beta, gamma, and delta are 0.40%, 0.63%, 0.04%, and 1.7%, respectively. Furthermore, prevalent vaccines of various natures show significantly reduced effectiveness against these VOCs, necessitating urgent need for development of effective prophylactic vaccines and potential therapy to contain the pandemic.

Recent development in carbon nanotubes based gas sensors

Technological expansion in nanotechnology have given upsurge to a new generation of functional organic nanomaterials with well-defined characteristics and controlled shape, allowing for a large number of possible applications. Innovative detection systems for the reliable and timely monitoring of dangerous gases in industrial processes and the environment are vital for maintaining optimum health and safety. In this context, semiconductor metal oxides, polymers, and carbon-based materials are often utilized materials for the applications of gas sensing. Metal oxide gas sensors are low-cost and have good sensitivity, however, they frequently demand higher working temperatures above ~120°C. Polymer-based gas sensors, on the other hand, are generally used to detect volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and have a high sensitivity and quick response, but they are prone to irreversibility and instability over time. Carbon-based gas sensors are becoming increasingly popular due to their unique characteristics and high sensitivity. Carbon nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes (CNTs), are generally recognized as prospective nanomaterials for developing a new gas sensor with important nanotechnology implications. Carbon nanotubes have sparked a lot of interest because of their great surface-area-to-volume ratio, chemical inertness, nanoscale architecture, and hollow core, all of this makes them appealing for nanotechnology applications currently and in the future. This review work covers the current state-of-the-art work and advancements in gas sensors development based on organic nanomaterials; carbon nanotubes in particular.

Novel Inhibitors of malarial aspartyl proteases, plasmepsin II and IV: In silico design and validation studies

In the dire need of novel inhibitors of enzymes, computational approaches have significantly expedited the drug discovery process. Aspartic protease enzymes of Plasmodium falciparum such as plasmepsin II (PfPlm II) and plasmepsin IV (PfPlm IV) have been recognized as an attractive drug target for antimalarial drug discovery. In line with this, we performed high-throughput screening of 316 novel compounds based on validated pharmacophore i.e., hydroxyethylamine (HEA) and piperazine against both PfPlm II and PfPlm IV. The obtained hit compound-protein complexes were subjected for molecular dynamics (MD) simulations at 200ns and found stable. Thermodynamic energy calculated for the complexes also supported compound’s stability within the binding pocket of plasmepsins. The results of our study strongly support an immediate validation of the virtually screened hits in biological systems.

A comprehensive review on therapeutic properties of Mustard Oil and Olive Oil

Plants and their extracts have been extensively studied for their efficacy in therapeutic applications. Their Essential Oils (EOs) are responsible for the majority of biological properties such as anticancer, antibacterial and antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cardio-protective. The utilization of natural compounds is gaining a lot of attention these days. These oils act as natural alternatives to the modern medical system to cure the illness that occurs in the biological system. This review provides an overview of the impact of the two most important plant-based oils: Mustard oil and Olive oil, the role of their components in different biological activities leading to their therapeutic applications. Their intake provides health benefits by controlling the symptoms of the diseases that involve cancer, bacterial infections, inflammation, cardiovascular, and some other common diseases. Most of the results come from in vitro and in vivo studies. However, their use in clinical studies is very little known.

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4. R.S. Buchanod, D.K. Reddy. In Selective Organic Transformations; T.R. Thyagarajan, Ed.; Integrated science: New York, 2002; Vol. 2, pp 1–95.
5. G.L. Loyale, U.S. Patent 5 934 456, 1998; Chem. Abstr. 1998, 65, 2870.

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2021 Reviewers Chemical Biology Letters

The list of reviewers for Chemical Biology Letters. The names of selected reviewers who showed reservation in displaying their name on this page have been omitted from this list.

Dr. Vu Duc Canh
University of Tokyo
Dr. Almando Geraldi
Universitas Airlangga
Dr. Brijesh Rathi
University of Delhi
(4 articles)
Dr. Kavindra Kumar Kesari
Aalto University, Espoo, Finland
Dr. Manoj K. Tripathi
Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering
Dr. Sumit Kumar
DCR University of Science and Technology
(7 articles)
Dr Elif Sahin
Yeni Yüzyil Üniversitesi, Turkey
(2 articles)
Dr. Sobhana Sahoo
Vidyasagar College for Women, University of Calcutta
(3 articles)
Dr. Pallav Sengupta
MAHSA University, Malaysia
(7 articles)
Dr. Prasenjit Chaudhuri
Sister Nivedita Government Degree College
(2 articles)
Dr. Sermin Bicer
Yeni Yüzyil Üniversitesi, Turkey
(2 articles)
Dr. Koushik Bhattacharya
Rungta College of Dental Science and Research
Dr. Kesab Raj Joshi
Tribhuvan University
Dr. Varsha Mehra
Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women, University of Delhi
Dr. Sulagna Dutta
MAHSA University, Malaysia
(5 articles)
Dr. Indrakant Singh
Deshbandhu College, University of Delhi
Dr. Beena Negi
University of Delhi
Dr. Manisha Khatri
Shaheed Rajguru College of Applied Sciences for Women, University of Delhi
Prof. Anil Kumar
Birla Institute of Technology and Science
Dr. Suresh Dua
Kurukshetra University
Prof. Rambir Singh
Mizoram University
Prof. Sujata Mishra
Siksha’O’Anusandhan University
Dr. Pooja Singh
University of Delhi
Prof. Tulay Irez
Yeni Yüzyil Üniversitesi, Turkey
Dr. Suvendu Ghosh
Post Graduate Department of Physiology, Hooghly Mohsin College
Dr. Arijit Chakraborty
The Assam Royal Global University
Prof. Ajaikumar Kunnumakkara
Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati
Dr. Helen Antony
University of Kerala
Dr. Chai Theam Ooi
MAHSA University, Malaysia
Dr. Anand Dev Tiwari
Cleveland Clinic Foundation, USA
Dr. Ajmer Singh Grewal
Guru Govind Singh College of Pharmacy
Dr. Rajiv Kharab
Amity University, Noida
Dr. Poonam
Miranda House, University of Delhi
(3 articles)
Dr. Amit K. Kushwaha
Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Bhopal
Dr. Ajay Kumar
Banaras Hindu University
Dr. Kuldeep Singh
Maharshi Markandeshwar University
Prof. Rajiv Dahiya
The University of West Indies
Dr. Shaoyong Ke
National Biopesticide Engineering Research Institute, China
Dr. Gauravi Deshpande
Digital Imaging Core,
Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland
Dr. Ronaldo Nascimento de Oliveira
Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE), Brazil
Baoen Chen, PhD
Life Sciences Institute,
Zhejiang University, China
more to be updated