Book: Integrated Environmental Science
Author: BS Chhikara
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Table of Content
Unit 1: Introduction to environmental studies
- Multidisciplinary nature of environmental studies
- Scope and Importance; Need for public awareness.
Unit 2: Ecosystems
- What is an ecosystem? Structure and function of ecosystem; Energy flow in an ecosystem: food chains, food webs and ecological succession. Case studies of the following ecosystems:
- Forest ecosystem
- Grassland ecosystem
- Desert ecosystem
- Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries)
Unit 3: Natural Resources: Renewable and Non-renewable Resources
- Land Resources and land use change; land degradation, soil erosion and desertification.
- Deforestation: Causes and impacts due to mining, dam building on environment, forests, biodiversity and tribal populations.
- Water: use and over exploitation of surface and ground water, floods, droughts, conflicts over water (international and inter-state).
- Energy resources: Renewable and non-renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources, growing energy needs, case studies.
Unit 4: Biodiversity and Conservation
- Levels of biological diversity: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity; Biogeographic zones of India; Biodiversity patterns and global biodiversity hot sports.
- India as a mega-biodiversity nation; Endangered and endemic species of India
- Threats to biodiversity: Habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts, biological invasions; Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity.
- Ecosystem and biodiversity services: Ecological, economic, social, ethical, aesthetic and informational value.
Unit 5: Environmental Pollution
- Environmental Pollution: types, causes, effects and controls, Air, water, soil and noise pollution
- Nuclear Hazard and human health risks
- Solid waste management: Control measures of urban and Industrial waste
- Pollution case studies
Unit 6: Environmental Policies and Practices
- Sustainability and sustainable development
- Climate change, global warming, ozone layer depletion, acid rain and impact of human communities and agriculture
- Environment Laws: Environment protection act; Air (prevention and control of pollution) Act; Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act; Wildlife Protection Act: Forest Conservation Act.
- Nature reserves, tribal population and rights, and human wildlife conflicts in Indian context.
Unit 7: Human communities and the Environment
- Human population growth: Impacts on environment, human health and welfare.
- Resettlement and rehabilitation of project affected persons: case studies
- Disaster management: flood, earthquake, cyclones and landslides.
- Environmental Movements: Chipko, Silent Valley, Bishnois of Rajasthan
- Environmental Ethics: Role of Indian and other religions and cultures in environmental conservation
- Environmental communication and public awareness, case studies (e.g. CNG vehicles in Delhi).
Unit 8: Field work
- Visit to an area to document environmental assets: river/forest/flora/fauna etc.
- Visit to local polluted site – Urban/Rural/Industrial/Agricultural
- Study of common plants, insects, birds and basic principles of identification.
Study of simple ecosystems – pond, river, Delhi ridge etc.