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Herbal nanomedicine interactions to enhance pharmacokinetics, pharmaco-dynamics, and therapeutic index for better bioavailability and biocompatibility of herbal formulations

The recent technological advancement in nanotechnology has unlocked new avenues for research and development in the field of phyto-medicine. Development of reliable and eco-friendly synthesis of nanoparticles is a significant advancement for starter nanotechnology to develop noble nanomedical delivery system of herbs (HNMDS), and have to overcome the downsides of old-style herbs-medicines delivery means through analyzing the interactions between nanocarriers and herbs or phyto-medicine. The application of nanotechnological ways and means for bioavailability and biocompatibility enrichment of phyto-medicine must be reread and need swift efforts to develop new formulations. Nanotechnology empowers the combination of hitherto separate approaches to health care by letting the realization of so-called ‘theranostic’ applications, as well as besieged blend products. Formulation must also release active ingredient from phyto-formulation as emerging nano dosage forms having number of benefits existed earlier in phyto-medicine. This assessment converses nano sized herbal nanomedicines delivery carries, potential current and ultramodern advances for enhancing the activity and overcoming problems associated with herbal medicines for the development of novel HNMDS. Clinical Pharmacokinetics is discussed in view of the impression of advance of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion as per the entitlement of pharmacokinetic principles of the harmless and actual therapeutic applications of herbal nanomedical medications.

Source:: http://www.pubs.iscience.in/journal/index.php/jmns/article/view/835

      

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Mechanistic approach of anti-diabetic compounds identified from natural sources

Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a global disease, which leads to various other life threatening diseases and affects the quality of life. Current therapies of T2DM have various side effects and ultimately lead to insulin resistance, along with financial burden. Therefore, comparative study of natural compounds along with their mechanisms has been discussed, which may lead toward the better understanding about their efficacy and selection of future anti-diabetic drugs. Traditional medicine is promising to treat T2DM, where more than 200 plants and other species are shown to have anti-T2DM effects. Moreover, these natural products have different types of molecular mechanisms, i. e. β-cell regeneration, insulin mimicry, AMPK, Akt, PPARs, LXR activation and inhibition of α-glucosidase, TNF- α, sodium glucose co- tranporters and oxidative stress. At the same time numbers of compounds have been reported to have in vivo efficacy. As a number of investigators speculated the molecular mechanism of these natural opmpounds, hence this review is focused on the molecular mechanism of different types of natural anti-diabetic molecules and their classes along with their efficacy in animal models. This review will provide a broad idea about anti-diabetic compounds to scientific and common people and will help to choose the dietary components and traditional medicines effective in T2DM.

Source:: http://www.pubs.iscience.in/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/834

      

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Synthesis and biodegradation study of Starch/PVA/Nanoclay blend

In this proposed project we have synthesized blend of starch/PVA/nanoclay via solution cast method. The composition of blend was starch and PVA in 1:1 ratio by weight with citric acid as plasticizer. The amount of nanoclay was varied between 0.5 to 2 wt%. The structure elucidation of the film by Scanning electron microscopy reveals homogeneous dispersion of nanoclay into polymer matrix. The biodegradation of the films were studied by soil burial method and enzymatic hydrolysis and it was found that completely biodegradable films were produced which could serve as potential candidate for food packaging.

Source:: http://www.pubs.iscience.in/journal/index.php/jmns/article/view/831

      

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Antituberculer Schiffs Bases Prepared from Biologically Active Substituted Benzaldehydes to Enhance Drug likeness

In a preliminary screening we found that many substituted benzaldehyde showing promising anti-tubercular (anti-TB) activity. Study was planned to convert these substituted benzaldehyde to anti-tubercular schiffs bases. Various schiffs bases were synthesized by condensation of 2-Amino pyridine (or its derivative) or Thiophene or Furoic or Nicotinic acid hydrazide with anti-tubercular benzaldehydes. Compounds were purified, crystallized and characterized by IR,1H and 13C-NMR. Initial Anti-tubercular screening was carried out in fast growing Mycobacterial strain Mycobacterium smegmatis (M. smeg.) by disc diffusion method. Further quantitative estimation of anti-tubercular activity was carried out in Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis) BCG vaccine strain using Resazurin Microplate Assay (REMA). Schiffs bases prepared from salisaldehyde or p-NO2 benzaldehyde with 2- amino pyridine (3c and 3f) and 2, 3 dihydroxy benzaldehyde with nicotinic acid hydrazide (8a) have shown anti-TB potential. Anti-TB activity of synthesized compounds was reported at higher concentration (500µg/mL) with respect to standard drug isoniazid INH (40µg/mL), because there was no earlier report or MIC data of synthesized Schiffs bases. Compounds 3c, 3f and 8a have shown 60, 40 and 50 mm zone of inhibition in M. smegmatis compared to vector control, INH has shown 40 mm zone of inhibition. In Mycobacterium bovis, Schiffs bases 3c,3f and 8a have shown 53.69, 49.41, 46.49 % inhibition at 500 µM concentration, the activity was concentration dependent and lower inhibition of 29.73, 37.75 and 36.15% were observed at 125 µM concentration by the compound 3c and 3f and 8a respectively. Standard drug INH has shown 60% inhibition at 40 µg/ml concentration. The anti-TB activity of banzaldehydes depends on various substitutions, Nitro or methoxy or hydroxyl substituted benzaldehydes were anti-TB while halogenated benzaldehydes are inactive. Preparation of Schiff’s bases may be one of the ways to enhance activity, introduce drug likeness in the active benzaldehyde, may represent low toxicity and high bioavailability.

Source:: http://www.pubs.iscience.in/journal/index.php/cbl/article/view/818

      

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Microwave assisted greener synthesis of silver nanoparticles using karanjin and their antifungal activity

In recent days, the synthesis of nanoparticles using biomaterials is growing very rapidly due to their non toxicity and eco friendliness. In the present study we demonstrated the role of individual organic compounds present in the plant extracts in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) using Karanjin, a natural flavonoid extracted from seeds of Pongamia pinnata L. assisted by microwave technique. The plasmon resonance absorbance peak was observed at 424 nm in UV–visible spectroscopy. The TEM results showed presence of spherical shape with ~20 nm in size. The FTIR spectrum indicates there is no organic molecule present in the powder material and it confirms the formation of Ag NPs by microwave method. Further, confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. AFM images explained the topography of the Ag NPs. The obtained nanoparticles were stable and it confirms the activity of Karanjin as a reducing and capping agent in synthesis of Ag NPs. The synthesized Ag NPs demonstrated good antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus and A. niger.

Source:: http://www.pubs.iscience.in/journal/index.php/jmns/article/view/814

      

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WITHDRAWN: Synthesis of Zn-Loaded TiO2 Electrospun Nanofibers for Photocatalytic Decolorization of Methylene Blue

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is one of the excellent photocatalysts used for degradation of environmetal pollutants. In this work, 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt.% of zinc (Zn)-loaded TiO2 nanofibers of mean size 45-80nmwere synthesized by electrospinning method. These electrospun nanofibers were calcined at 600°C to enable the transformation of Rutile (R) phase to Anatase (A), elimination of reaction moieties from the TiO2 matrix and subsequently formation of Zn clusters. The effect of Zn loading on the morphology, crystal structure, phase transformation, and band gap of these electrospun nanofibers have been characterized by Scannining Electron Microscopy (SEM), (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Photoluminescence (PL), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman Spectroscopy and UV-Visible Spectroscopy. These nanofibers exhibited a red-shift in the absorbance edge and a significant enhancement of light absorption in the wavelength range of 250–550nm. These electrospun nanofibers were investigated for photodecomposition of methylene blue (MB), and photocatalytic decolorization rates were determined by pseudo-first-order equation. The rate constants for the pure and those of 1, 2, 3 and 4 wt% Zn-loaded TiO2 nanofibers were computed to be 0.1439min-1, 0.1608min-1, 0.1876min-1, 0.20123 min-1 and 0.2251min-1 respectively.

Source:: http://www.pubs.iscience.in/journal/index.php/jmns/article/view/816

      

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Optoelectronic properties of single and array of 1-D III-nitride nanostructures: An approach to light-driven device and energy resourcing

One dimensional (1-D) group III-nitride nanostructures are important components of optoelectronic devices owing to its unique feature of unidirectional carrier flow, and efficient electrical connectivity. The group III-nitride materials are attractive for the application as low power white and blue–green light sources provide a green and extended operational life. We discuss the luminescence phenomena observed in single or arrayed 1-D III-nitride nanostructures including quantum wells. The role of these 1-D nanostructures is critically reviewed in the field of ‘green’ energy generation, namely hydrogen source in fuel cells, the photoelectrochemical workhorse in renewable energy resourcing, and in solar cells.

Source:: http://www.pubs.iscience.in/journal/index.php/jmns/article/view/759

      

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Chemical extraction and biomedical importance of secondary organic metabolites from plants – A review

Medicinal plants are the important source of potentially useful chemotherapeutic agents which have made enormous contributions to human health and well-being. The bacteria, fungi, virus, etc have developed resistance against available drugs. The secondary metabolites of the variety of plants can serve as major source for the development of new drugs for the treatment of different diseases and infections. Depending upon the bioactive constituents present in the plant sample, these metabolites are extracted by different methods including most recent soxhlet, microwave, ultrasound, supercritical fluid, etc extractions. The different groups of secondary metabolites with their structural variations, chemical extraction methods and their potent biomedical applications have been discussed in this review.

Source:: http://www.pubs.iscience.in/journal/index.php/jbts/article/view/772

      

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