Applications of Nanoparticles and nanopharmulations in drug development and drug delivery have been an extensive field of research to find out the alternative better therapeutics. The past research in nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology mostly emphasized on improving the profile of existing drugs, however, a recent pattern has seen in variation of field and aspects studied using nanomedicine. The current nanomedicine research has oriented in developing new drugs based on the interaction of nanoparticles on targets like cancer therapeutics, development of new biosensors, bioimaging (cellular and in vivo), new vistas of anti-viral drugs, besides the most researched field of nano delivery of drugs for cancer, diabetes, anti-bacterial, and other ailments. An overview of current research trends is presented based on the literature published at different platforms in recent time.
By Bhaskara Nand, Kalawati Meena, Shruti Gupta, J.M. Khurana, Amita Malik, Chetan Sharma, Harsh Panwar A series of novel 2-(3-aryl/alkylaminopropoxy)-12-aryl-9,10-dihydro-8H– benzo[a]xanthen-11-one derivatives were synthesized from 2-hydroxy-12-aryl 9,10-dihydro-8H-benzo[a]xanthen-11-ones by reaction with 1-bromo-3-chloropropane in presence of K2CO3 in dry acetone under reflux followed by reaction with aryl/alkyl amines in presence of KI in dry DMF at 100oC. Structures have been confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. All the newly synthesized 2-(3- aryl/alkylaminopropoxy)-12-aryl xanthene derivatives were screened for their antimicrobial activity against four microbial strains Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The selected synthesized compounds showed moderate antimicrobial activity.
By Jeevan Jyoti Kaushik, Yacob Tesfamichael Keleta, Danait Kebede Emha, Estifanos Okbay Ghebrehans, Henok Tekie Araya, Kisanet Habtemichael Gebregziabher, Kisanet Teklemariam Kifle, Nabait G. Weldetnsaie, Atul Kaushik
The discovery of bacterial-communication systems (quorum-sensing systems), which orchestrate important temporal events during the infection process, has afforded a novel opportunity to ameliorate bacterial infection by means other than growth inhibition. In this study three different assays were performed; Las-A staphylolytic assay, anti-swarming assay, pyocyanin assay. In the anti-swarming activity, the highest anti-swarming activity were seen in the chloroform and petroleum extract of O.fruticosa. In the Las-A activity, the highest reduction in Las-A activity was seen in the chloroform extract of V.sinaiticum (70.5%) and also petroleum extract of V.sinaticum and chloroform extract O.fructicosa (70.3%).In the Pyocyanin assay, the chloroform extract of O.fructicosa and V.sinaiticum showed more significant effect in decreasing the Pyocyanin production by 81.8% and 79.5% respectively.
By Shalinee Jain, Dharmendra Jain Gastroesophagus reflux disease, acidity and hearts burning are the most common problems, which can be overcome by the raft forming in-situ gel system containing combination of H2 antagonist and GABAB antagonist as well as raft forming agents (alginate, pectin etc.). GERD develops when the reflux of the gastric contents occur into the esophagus which cause various complication into GIT. The main cause of GERD is an abnormal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure and increased reflux during transient LES relaxation. This review mainly focus on the formulation development for reducing the transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation (TLESR) rate, attenuating esophageal sensitivity and developing esophageal mucosal protectants. For this purpose GABAB is used which reduces TLESR rate by 40-50% and reflux episodes by 70%, also increase LES pressure and H2 antagonist is used as antisecretory agent in terms of symptomatic relief and mucosal healing. The combined effect of raft forming gelling system is more effective. The review also focuses on the physiological factors, physicochemical factors and formulation factors to be considered in the development of the raft forming system.
By Ashish Bhatt, Rajesh Kumar Singh, Ravi Kant A new class of 1,3,4-thiadiazole derivatives 8a-i incorporating imidazo [1,2-b] pyridazine and thiazolidinone moieties were synthesized by the reaction of arylidene derivatives of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2-amine having imidazo [1,2-b] pyridazine moiety (Schiff base) 7a-i with thioglycolic acid. Schiff base 7a-i were synthesized by the reaction of 1,3,4-thiadiazoles 2-amine having imidazo [1,2-b] pyridazine moiety 6 with substituted benzaldehyde. These were screened for in-vitro antimicrobial activity against two gram positive (Streptococcus Pyogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli) as well as for antifungal and antimalarial activity against plasmodium falciparum strain. Compound 8a and 8b exhibited good antimicrobial and antimalarial activity.
By Surajit Baksi, Mukandar Khan, Mamta Panchal, Nirav Rao Hyaluronic acid (HA) is a biopolysacharride present in connective tissues of body. It has high significant economic concern due to its high use in medical, cosmetic and food industries. It is present in several resources like rooster combs, eye and umbilical cord. Due to its good chemical and physical properties, it is used in ophthalmic and osteoarthritic surgeries. Presently, it is produced from animal and bacterial sources. But, the percentage yield is very less at large scale. In present study, effort was done to increase yield of HA from Streptococcus zooepidemicus, through modification of the fermentation and extraction process. The cell concentration and HA concentration was measured which showed that HA concentration increased with induced pH stress.
By Sridevi Dhanarani, Shankar Congeevaram, Prakash Piruthiviraj, Joon Hong Park, Thamaraiselvi Kaliannan Antibiotic resistant bacteria (ABR) is an alarming issue and it has to be eliminated before enter into the environment. The role of efflux pump inhibitor, reserpine – a plant alkaloid in reducing the antibiotic resistance in Staphylococcus sp., Streptococcus sp. and Micrococcus sp. from poultry litter were evaluated. Reserpine increased the activity of antibiotics against bacteria and directly blocks the antibiotic efflux pump. Resistances of bacteria to antibiotics were reduced when they were grown in the presence of reserpine. Furthermore, this compound effectively reduced the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of several antibiotics such as ampicillin, erythromycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, rifampicin and tobramycin, suggesting that reserpine are representatives of bacterial efflux inhibitors with the potential application in combination therapy for veterinary medicines. This defensive action will helps us to reduce the existence of ABR in poultry industry as well as in the environment.
By Prabodh Chander Sharma, Seema Padwal, Anil Saini, Kushal Bansal A new series of N-(6-methoxybenzo[d]thiazol-2-yl)-2-substituted phenyl-1H-benz[d]imidazole-1-carbothioamide derivatives (5a-5h) has been synthesized and evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal and antimalarial effects. All these compounds were characterized and screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against selected bacterial and fungal strains. Titled compounds were also evaluated for their antimalarial activity against P. falciparum. Antimicrobial activity screening results showed that some compounds namely 5b against P. aeruginosa, 5c against S. aureus and E. coli, 5d against E. coli and P. aeruginosa and 5g against E. coli from the series have emerged as prospective antibacterial leads endowed with excellent activity (MIC 12.5-62.5 μg/ml). While only one fungal strain C. albicans was susceptible towards synthesized compounds. On the other hand, compounds 5c and 5h exhibited noteworthy antimalarial activity with IC50 values of 0.18 & 0.11 μg/ml as compared to standard drugs chloroquine (IC50 0.020 μg/ml) and quinine (IC50 0.268 μg/ml).
By Ishwar Singh Plants produce an enormous number of phytochemicals as a part of their primary as well as secondary metabolism of those many could be of therapeutic value especially antimicrobial application to human beings. Majority of the isolated antimicrobials pertain to chemical groups namely, phenolics, terpenes, alkaloids and polypeptides, and exhibit multiple mechanisms of action against disease causing microorganisms. The target site varies amongst different antimicrobials ranging from molecular level to organism level of organization. During their antimicrobial action at molecular level these phytochemicals interact covalently and non-covalently with macromolecules and render them non-functional. At cellular level antimicrobials disrupt the functioning of various cell components such as capsule, cell wall, cell membrane and mitochondria leading to the death of pathogens. Various antimicrobial activities like antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal activities of different plants and their isolated chemicals have also been discussed.