The scenario of Diversification of Disability and Health Care among older (60+) Population in India

Sunita Patel, Manas Ranjan Pradhan, Surendra Kumar Patel


Disability among elderly is serious challenges for a country that affect the individual, family, and the society. The objective of this study is to understand disability prevalence by selected characteristics, access to the health facility and the care providers to older disabled people in India. The study used the data from Census of India 2011, and SAGE Wave-1 (2007) data of India. Standardized Index of Diversity of Disability (SIDD) was used to identify the diversification of disability in India. Among 103.84 million (8.0%) older population, 5.34 million (5.19%) were disabled. Standardized index of diversity of disability varies from 0.80 to 0.73, found highly diversified by all disability prevalence in all states of India. Thirty-eight percent older disabled perceived their health care facility last sought as good and 17.0% as a bad healthcare facility. Fifty-seven percent older disabled accessed health care from private hospitals. Spouses were found to be the primary providers of physical, financial, and health support to older disabled. In conclusion, India exhibits a high and diverse disability among its older population. There is a need for customized state/district/disability specific targeted intervention for the welfare of the older Indian population.


Older disability; Standardized Index of Diversity of Disability; Disabled healthcare; Census of India

Full Text:



Abou-Gareeb, I., Lewallen, S., Bassett, K., & Courtright, P. (2001). Gender and blindness: a meta-analysis of population-based prevalence surveys. Ophthalmic Epidemiology, 8(1): p. 39-56. Doi: 10.1076/opep.

Agrawal, A. (2016). Disability among the elder population of India: A public health concern. Journal of Medical Society, 30(1): p. 15-19. doi: 10.4103/0972-4958.175791.

Alam, M. (2004). Ageing, Old Age Income Security and Reforms: An Exploration of Indian Situation. Economic and Political Weekly, 39(33): p. 3731-3740. URL:

Alkhawaldeh, A., Holm, M.B., Qaddumi, J., Petro, W., Jaghbir, M., & Al Omari, O. (2014). A cross-sectional study to examine factors associated with primary health care service utilization among older adults in the Irbid Governorate of Jordan. Current Gerontology and Geriatrics Research, 2014. Doi:

Awasthi, A., Pandey, C. M., Dubey, M., & Rastogi, S. (2017). Trends, prospects and deprivation index of disability in India: Evidences from census 2001 and 2011. Disability and health journal, 10(2), 247-256. Doi: 10.1016/j.dhjo.2016.10.011.

Census of India (2001). Office of Ragistrar General of India (ORGI), and Ministry of Home Affair, and Government of India: New Delhi. URL:

Census of India (2011). Office of Ragistrar General of India (ORGI), and Ministry of Home Affair, and Government of India: New Delhi. URL:

Congdon, N., West, S., Vitale, S., Katala, S., & Mmbaga, B.B. (1993). Exposure to children and risk of active trachoma in Tanzanian women. American Journal of Epidemiology, 137(3): p. 366-72. Doi: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a116683.

Courtright, P., Kim, S.H., Lee, H.S., & Lewallen, S. (1997). Excess mortality associated with blindness in leprosy patients in Korea. Leprosy Review, 68(4): p. 326-30. URL:

Courtright, P., Sheppard, J., Schachter, J., Said, M.E., & Dawson, C.R. (1989). Trachoma and blindness in the Nile Delta: current patterns and projections for the future in the rural Egyptian population. British Journal of Ophthalmology, 73(7): p. 536-40. URL:

Gong, C. H., Kendig, H., & He, X. (2016). Factors predicting health services use among older people in China: an analysis of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study 2013. Biomed Central Health Services research, 16(1), 63. Doi:

Guo, C., Du, W., Hu, C., & Zheng, X. (2016). Prevalence and factors associated with healthcare service use among Chinese elderly with disabilities. Journal of Public Health (Oxford), 38(3): p. e345-e351. Doi:

Klein, R., Klein, B.E., Jensen, S.C., Moss, S.E., & Cruickshanks, K. J. (1994). The relation of socioeconomic factors to age-related cataract, maculopathy, and impaired vision. The Beaver Dam Eye Study. Ophthalmology, 101(12): p. 1969-79. Doi:

Konjengbam, S., Bimol, N., Singh, A., K., Singh, A., B., Devi, E., V., & Singh, Y., M. (2007). Disability in ADL Among the Ederly in an Urban Area of Manipur. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medicinal Research, 18 (2): p. 41-43. URL:

Landerman, L. R., Fillenbaum, G. G., Pieper, C. F., Maddox, G. L., Gold, D. T., & Guralnik, J. M. (1998). Private health insurance coverage and disability among older Americans. The Journals of Gerontology Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences, 53(5), S258-S266. Doi:

Mattson, J. (2011). Transportation, Distance, and Health Care Utilization for Older Adults in Rural and Small Urban Areas, Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board (SAGE), p. 1-54. Doi:

Medhi, G.K., Hazarika, N.C., Borah, P.K., & Mahanta, J. (2006). Health problems and disability of elderly individuals in two population groups from same geographical location. Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 54: p. 539-44. URL:

National Sample Survey. (2004). Morbidity, Health Care and the Condition of the Aged, in National Sample Survey Organisation, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation Government of India. Report No. 507 (60/25.0/1). URL:

Pandey, M.K. (2009). Poverty and disability among Indian elderly: evidence from household survey. Munich Personal RePEc Archive, p. 1-23. URL:

Parahyba, M.I., Stevens, K., Henley, W., Lang, I. A., Melzer, D. (2009). Reductions in disability prevalence among the highest income groups of older Brazilians. American Journal of Public Health, 99(1): p. 81-6. Doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2007.130708.

Ponnapalli, K.M., & Ram F. (2010). Religious Taxonomy of States and Districts in India: An Analysis Using a Standardized Index of Diversity (SID) of Religion. IIPS Working Paper Series, p. 1-20. URL:

Rahman, M., Guntupalli, A.M., & Byles, J.E. (2018). Socio-demographic differences of disability prevalence among the population aged 60 years and over in Bangladesh. Asian Population Studies, 14(1): p. 77-95. Doi:

Rowland, D., T., (2003). Demographic Methods and Concepts. Oxford University Press.

SAGE (2013). Study on global Ageing and adult health (SAGE) Wave 1 India National Report. International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), World Health Organization (WHO), National AIDS Research Institute (NARI). p. 1-252. URL:

Sengupta, M., & Agree, E.M. (2002). Gender and disability among older adults in north and South India: differences associated with coresidence and marriage. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontolog, 17(4): p. 313-36. URL:

Sowmiya, K.R., Kumar, P.G., & Nagarani (2015). A study on prevalence and correlates of functional disability among the elderly in rural Tamilnadu. International Journal of Medical Research and Review, 3(4): p. 430-435. URL:

Velayutham, B., Kangusamy, B., Joshua, V., & Mehendale, S. (2016). The prevalence of disability in elderly in India - Analysis of 2011 census data. Disability and Health Journal, 9(4): p. 584-92. Doi:

World Report on Disability. (2011). World Health Organization, World Bank. URL:

Yount, K.M., & Agree, E.M. (2005). Differences in disability among older women and men in Egypt and Tunisia. Demography, 42(1): p. 169-87. URL:


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 2454-6623